Because responses seem to vary between individuals and depend on the exercise model used, supplements should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before implementation into a competition environment. Indeed, it is possible that deleterious responses may outweigh any expected performance-enhancing affect. Over the past two decades, a new hazard related to supplement use has emerged: inadvertent ingestion of substances that are prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport, but are present in some supplement products.
In some cases, the level of banned or toxic substances in supplements presents a health hazard for all consumers. In other cases, the content may be too small to cause any health or performance effect but large enough to record an Anti-Doping Rule Violation for athletes who submit to doping tests. These problems may arise from poor quality assurance during production or from deliberate adulteration of otherwise ineffective products. The lack of evidence to support claims made about a supplement may be ignored by athletes because the stakes are so high: the cost:benefit ratio therefore favours experimentation in the absence of clear proof.
The use of dietary supplements should not compensate for poor food choices and an inadequate diet, except as a short-term strategy when nutrient intake is challenged or dietary changes are not possible.
Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise
Use of products that have been subjected to one of the available quality assurance schemes can help to reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of an inadvertent doping infringement. Vulnerable populations, including especially young athletes, may require particular support in making choices about supplement use.
In general, use of supplements by young athletes is discouraged except when full evaluation of nutritional status suggests that it is warranted. How to use tart cherry juice.
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January 23, Ronald Maughan. About me. November 6, October 16, March 18, August 14, July 14, October 18, Related posts. Recent posts. The sweet taste of success: Fructose for recovery in multi-stage races. September 16, In the past decade, in fact, a growing body of research suggests that superfluous i.
Moreover, it has also been reported that antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance Gomez-Cabrera et al. Collectively, these findings strongly infer that antioxidant supplementation hampers favorable exercise training adaptations and interferes with the recovery process.
Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in coffee, tea and many nutritional supplements.
There is robust scientific evidence demonstrating that caffeine ingestion serves as an effective ergogenic aid for both aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. Caffeine ingested orally is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and peaks within 30 to 60 minutes. Caffeine mechanistically effects the central nervous system, primarily by antagonism of adenosine receptors, which results in enhanced mood, reduced perception of pain and increased attention. Carnitine is an ammonium compound produced endogenously by the liver and kidneys.
It serves as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized for energy production and thus plays a key role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Accordingly, scientists and sport nutritionists alike have entertained the notion that supplementation could increase the bioavailability of carnitine and enhance overall capacity for lipid metabolism.
This theoretical scenario could have both weight-loss and endurance-performance implications. In summary, there is little to no evidence to support the efficacy of carnitine as an ergogenic supplement. This is a classic nutritional recommendation for recreational enthusiasts and athletes alike. After prolonged and exhaustive endurance-related exercise, the most important factor determining the timeframe to recovery is muscle glycogen replenishment Ivy, It has been well established for quite some time that post-exercise carbohydrate CHO ingestion is critical to the synthesis of muscle glycogen.
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There is also evidence for a dose-response relationship between post-exercise dosage of CHO ingestion and the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis. For example, it has been shown that consuming 1. However, ingestion of 1. Additionally, more frequent provision of this overall CHO dosage interspersed in smaller doses over a few hours is more effective at replenishing muscle glycogen compared to one or two large doses ingested less regularly.
In summary, to optimize muscle glycogen repletion after prolonged and exhaustive endurance-related exercise, it has been recommended to ingest 1. Glutamine is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
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Common dietary sources of glutamine include beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs, beans and vegetables such as carrots and spinach. It was originally suggested that glutamine supplementation may stimulate protein synthesis and thereby promote enhanced muscular performance. Indeed, research findings from Colker and colleagues assessed the effects of supplemental whey protein with or without added glutamine and branched-chain amino acids on body mass, body composition and exercise performance for a week period.
They observed that whey protein combined with glutamine and branched-chain amino acids, in addition to resistance exercise, elicited significant improvements in body composition and exercise performance. However, more recent research has found glutamine supplementation does not benefit muscular performance Antonio et al. Recovery from cellular acidosis is paramount for restoring the capacity to regenerate ATP from both the phosphagen system and glycolysis.
Muscle-buffering capacity can be augmented by nutritional strategies. Indeed, alkalizing agents have been studied extensively for their potential for enhancing performance by attenuating the extent to which metabolic acidosis contributes to fatigue during high-intensity exercise performance Peart, Siegler and Vince, One such alkalizing substance that has been found to improve recovery by increasing the muscle-buffering capacity is sodium bicarbonate.
The mechanism by which sodium bicarbonate ingestion mediates an ergogenic effect is by promoting removal of protons from the skeletal muscle milieu. Given the fact that increased concentrations of proton molecules within the muscle cell are detrimental to skeletal muscle performance, it should be recognized that an increased rate of removal from the skeletal muscle environment will result in a more rapid recovery. This, in turn, will permit a better performance of subsequent high-intensity exercise bouts. The main drawback to use of sodium bicarbonate is that some individuals experience gastrointestinal distress with its ingestion.
Accordingly, it is a good idea to first purposefully experiment with the sodium bicarbonate loading protocols to maximize the alkalizing effects and minimize the risk of potential symptoms. The recommended dosage and timeframe for sodium bicarbonate ingestion is 0. Sodium bicarbonate can either be ingested in capsule form or mixed in water. Arginine is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In the body, arginine changes into the potent vasodilator nitric oxide NO. Given that NO is known to promote vasodilation and enhance skeletal muscle blood flow, it has been suggested that arginine supplementation may increase exercise performance. Indeed, some experimental research exists to support this line of reasoning. For example, Campbell and colleagues provided arginine or a placebo to 35 resistance-trained males in a double-blind study and concluded that upper-body strength and lower-body power output were significantly increased after supplementation. Despite these encouraging findings, however, most of the other published scientific studies regarding arginine supplementation have not reported a beneficial ergogenic result.
Therefore, caution is warranted with regards to the use of arginine to enhance exercise performance. Carnosine itself is found in skeletal muscle and has numerous important physiological functions, including the regulation of calcium, enzymes and pH.
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Beyond that timeframe a maintenance dosage of 1. As a health and exercise professional, your aim should always be to provide your clients with evidence-based educational resources on the effectiveness of various performance and nutritional supplements. This will help make it possible for your clients to make informed decisions and fully understand how consuming these products will impact their health, performance and training.
Antonio, J. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research , 16, Beelen, M. Nutritional strategies to promote postexercise recovery. Campbell, B. Pharmacokinetics, safety and effects on exercise performance of l-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in trained adult men.
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Nutrition , 22, Candow, D. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology , 86, Close, G.
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